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Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are shown to be extremely effective when used in weight-loss. These glucose-lowering drugs work by reducing plasma glucose levels through inhibiting glucose and sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, thus resulting in glucosuria.
Body weight is consistently observed in individuals taking SGLT2 inhibitors. However, the weight loss is moderate due to counter-regulatory mechanisms striving to maintain body weight. SGLT2 inhibitors, when taken in combination with decreased food intake and/or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) can be very effective in weight loss.
In addition to weight loss, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors has many other benefits. This includes but is not limited to Reduction in Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness, reduction in the progression of renal disease and positive effectives on blood lipids. SGLT2 inhibitors also have a low potential to induce hypoglycemia in comparison to other glucose lowering therapies.
In general, SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated and the most common adverse effect is an increased risk of mycotic genital infections. Recent evidence suggests that episodes of ketoacidosis can also occur as well. Finally, the CANVAS program has reported an increased risk of bone fractures and lower-limb amputations with Cangliflozin.
Medicines in the SGLT2 inhibitor class includes Canagliflozin, Depagliflozin, and Empagliflozin